Standards

J&D addresses the following California standards in 8th Grade:

History-Social Science (United States History and Geography: Growth and Conflict)

Historical Interpretation

1. Students explain the central issues and problems from the past, placing people and events in a matrix of time and place.

2. Students understand and distinguish cause, effect, sequence, and correlation in historical events, including the long- and short-term causal relations.

4. Students recognize the role of chance, oversight, and error in history.

5. Students recognize that interpretations of history are subject to change as new information is uncovered.

8.2 Students analyze the political principles underlying the U.S. Constitution and compare the enumerated and implied powers of the federal government.

3. Evaluate the major debates that occurred during the development of the Constitution and their ultimate resolutions in such areas as shared power among institutions, divided state-federal power, slavery, the rights of individuals and states (later addressed by the addition of the Bill of Rights), and the status of American Indian nations under the commerce clause.

6. Enumerate the powers of government set forth in the Constitution and the fundamental liberties ensured by the Bill of Rights.

8.3 Students understand the foundation of the American political system and the ways in which citizens participate in it.

6. Describe the basic law-making process and how the Constitution provides numerous opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process and to monitor and influence government (e.g., function of elections, political parties, interest groups).

Visual and Performing Arts - Music

1.0 Artistic Perception

Listen to, Analyze, and Describe Music

1.5 Analyze and compare the use of musical elements representing various genres, styles, and cultures, with an emphasis on chords and harmonic progressions.

1.7 Explain how musical elements are used to create specific music events in given aural examples.

2.0 Creative Expression

Compose, Arrange, and Improvise

2.6 Improvise melodic and rhythmic embellishments and variations in major keys.

3.0 Historical and Cultural Context

Role of Music

3.1 Compare and contrast the functions music serves and the place of musicians in society in various cultures.

3.2 Identify and explain the influences of various cultures on music in early United States history.

3.3 Explain how music has reflected social functions and changing ideas and values.\

4.0 Aesthetic Valuing

Analyze and Critically Assess

4.1 Use detailed criteria for evaluating the quality and effectiveness of musical performances and compositions and apply the criteria to personal listening and performing.

4.2 Apply detailed criteria appropriate for the genre and style of the music to evaluate the quality and effectiveness of performances, compositions, arrangements, and improvisations, by oneself and others.

Derive Meaning

4.3 Explain how and why people use and respond to specific music from different musical cultures found in the United States.

4.4 Compare the means used to create images or evoke feelings and emotions in musical works from a minimum of two different musical cultures found in the United States.